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IllustrationsJanetMoneymaker,MarjieBassler Editor MarjieBassler Copyright2013GravitasPublications,Inc. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem, ortransmitted,

CONTENTS iii CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS GEOLOGY 1. 1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Contents Introduction WhatIsGeology InterpretingGeologicalData WhyStudyEarth WhatDoGeologistsS

iv CONTENTS CHAPTER 6 THE ATMOSPHERE 6. 1 Introduction 6.2 ChemicalComposition 6.3 StructureoftheAtmosphere 6.4 AtmosphericPressure 6.5 GravityandtheAtmosphere 6.6 T

2FOCUSONMIDDLESCHOOLGEOLOGY 1.1Introduction MostpeopleprobablydontoftenthinkaboutEarthbeingtheplacewhere theylive.Whenyouasksomeonewheretheylive,theymightreplyon 4thStreetorinMinneapolis,butrarelydoy

CHAPTER1WHATISGEOLOGY3 PhysicalgeologyexaminesthechemicalandphysicalnatureofEarthand alsotheprocessesthatoperateonandinsideEarth.Physicalgeology explorestheEarthssurface,theprocessesthatformtheEarth,

4FOCUSONMIDDLESCHOOLGEOLOGY Itisnotincorrectforpresuppositionstobeusedinscience,andscientists dousethemallthetime.However,scientistsmaybeginresearchwith differingpresuppositions,andeventhoughscientist

CHAPTER1WHATISGEOLOGY5 Thistextwillfocusonphysicalgeologyandwillnotdiscussdifferent historicalnarrativesforEarth.However,itisimportanttokeepinmindthat interpretinggeologicaldataisanexcitinganddynamic

6FOCUSONMIDDLESCHOOLGEOLOGY 1.5WhatDoGeologistsStu dy Ifyouveevermeta geologistyoumight havenoticedthatthey canspendalotoftime outdoors hikingup mountainsandwalking throughfields.Theyalso tendtocoll

CHAPTER1WHATISGEOLOGY7 atomsandmoleculesthatformEarth.Inordertostudythechemistryof Earth,geochemiststakesamplesoftherocks,minerals,soils,andother matterthatEarthismadefromandanalyzethesamples.Inthisb

8FOCUSONMIDDLESCHOOLGEOLOGY 1.6GeologyandtheScientificMethod Thescientificmethodisasetofproceduresusedbyscientiststomake discoveriesandstudytheworld.Therearefivestepsthatmakeupthe scientificmethodmak

CHAPTER1WHATISGEOLOGY9 1.7Summary GeologyisthestudyofEarth. Geologyisdividedintotwobroadcategoriesphysicalgeologyand PhysicalgeologyexaminesthechemistryandphysicsofEarth.Historical Geologists

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