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Illustrations JanetMoneymaker RebeccaW.Keller,PhD MarjieBassler Copyright2014GravitasPublications,Inc. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem, ortransmitte

Contents Introduction CHAPTER 1 What Is Science 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 WhatIsScience TheHistoryofScience ThePhilosophyofScience TheScientificMethod MakingScientificMeasurements Interpretin

CHAPTER 5 Chemical Reactions 5.1 Introduction 5.2ChemicalReactionsandtheAtomicTheory 5.3 TypesofChemicalReactions 5.4CombinationReaction 5.5 DecompositionReaction 5.6 DisplacementReaction

CHAPTER 9 Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Introduction Viruses Bacteria ShapesofBacteria Archaea Summary 92 92 94 95 97 99 91 Physics CHAPTER 10

Geology CHAPTER 14 What Is Geology 14.1 Introduction 14.2 WhatIsGeology 14.3 InterpretingGeologicalData 14.4 WhyStudyEarth 14.5 WhatDoGeologistsStudy 14.6 GeologyandtheScientificMethod 14

Astronomy CHAPTER 18 What Is Astronomy 18. 1 Introduction 18.2 EarlyAstronomers 18.3 ModernAstronomers 18.4 ChangingViewsoftheCosmos 18.5 Summary 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 Introduction TheEar

Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5

Introduction

2 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 1.1WhatIsScience Haveyoueverwonderedwhat sciencereallyisorwhatit isthatscientistsreallydo Haveyouseenimagesof scientistsinwhitelabcoats workingfuriou

Introduction Chapter 1 What Is Science 3 Therearemanywaystodefinescience,butalldefinitionsofscienceinclude severalsystematicstepsfortheprocessofscientificinquiry.Theseinclude Makingscientificobservat

4 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 Naturalphilosophersexploredtheworldaroundthembycomingupwithand developingideasabouttheworld.Somenaturalphilosophersfurtherexplored theworldbyobserving

Introduction Chapter 1 What Is Science 5 Historianswhostudythehistoryofscienceusedifferentkindsofinformation tohelpthemunderstandhowmodernsciencewasdeveloped.Forexample, historiansofsciencelookatthen

6 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 Theearliestphilosophers wereclusteredaround theMediterraneanSea, mostnotablyancient Greece.However, activitiesthatwewould todayassociatewith modernsci

Introduction Chapter 1 What Is Science 7 Afterthe15thcentury,thephilosophicalideasthatstartedinGreecebegan tomergewiththetechnologicaldiscoveriesbeingmadebypeoplealloverthe world,anddiscoveriesmadeby

8 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 Theseareobservationsandarethefirststepinthescientificmethod.From theseobservations,youmightthinkofageneralstatementthattellssomething aboutwhatyouhave

Introduction Chapter 1 What Is Science 9 Thisbringsyoutothefourthstep inthescientificmethod,collecting results.Asascientist,youshould alwaysrecordtheresultsof yourexperimentexactlyasyou seethem.Ifthe

10 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 1.5MakingScientificMeasurements Aristotle384322BCEwasaGreek philosopherwhohelpedchangetheway peoplethoughtaboutthenaturalworld.He believedthatweshou

Introduction Chapter 1 What Is Science 11 Inductivereasoninghasitslimitations.Wemaynotlookatenoughdifferent situationstoseeallofthepossibilities.Forexample,ifblackcatsaretheonly typeofcatapersonhasev

12 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 1.6InterpretingScientificData Oncethemeasurementshavebeenmade,thenextstepistofindoutwhat theymean.Itisamisunderstandingaboutsciencetobelievethatscie

Introduction Chapter 1 What Is Science 13 Beforeaparadigmshiftinsciencecanoccur,newideasmustgiverisetonew scientificdiscoveries.Newideaschallengeold,establishedideasinscience. However,inorderfornewsc

Biology

16 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 9.1Introduction Aswesawinthelastseveralchapters,alllivingthingsaremadeofatoms andmolecules,andalllivingthingsassembletheseatomsandmoleculesinto smal

Biology Chapter 9 Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea 17 aregularlightmicroscope.Aspecial typeofmicroscopecalledanelectron microscopeisneededtoseeviruses. Anelectronmicroscopeuseselectrons insteadoflightt

18 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 Illustration of Human Rhinovirus 16 Reference Protein Data Bank structural studies of two rhinovirus serotypes complexed with fragments of their cel

Biology Chapter 9 Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea 19 Bacteriaaresinglecelledorganismswitha prokaryoticcelltype.Recallthatbacteria havenonucleusandtheirDNAisloosein thecell,locatedinacentralizedplaceca

20 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 E.coliisanexampleofarodshapedbacterium.Rodshapedbacteriaare calledbacilli.Mostbacilliappearassinglerods.Somebacilliformpairsafter theydivideandarecal

Biology Chapter 9 Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea 21 Therearethreedifferenttypesofspiralbacteriacalledvibrio,spirillum,and spirochete.Vibriobacteriaarealmostlikerods,butarecurved.Spririllaare fairlyst

22 Exploring the Building Blocks of Science Book 5 canbeburned,scientistsare experimentingwithwaysto collectmethaneanduseitfor fuel. Anothergroupofarchaeaare thehalophiles.Theirname comesfromtheGreekw

Biology Chapter 9 Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea 23 9.6Summary Viruses,bacteria,andarchaeaaresomeofthesmallestlivingthings. Virusescanbespiraloricosahedralinshape.Theyaredifficulttoclassify, a

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