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Rebecca W. Keller, PhD with illustrations by J. Moneymaker and D. J. Keller

Cover design David Keller Opening page David Keller Illustrations Rebecca W. Keller, PhD, Janet Moneymaker, David Keller Copyright 2013 Gravitas Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of thi

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CONTENTS 1.1 CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 1.1.2 1.1.3 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 Chemistry happens every day 1.2 ATOMS 1.2.1 Protons, neutrons, and electrons 1.2.2 Matter and mass What is chemistry W

2.8.2 Ionic compounds 2.8.3 Alkali earth metals 2.9 2.8.4 Hydrogen ions 2.8.5 Ionic compounds often dissolve in water COVALENT BONDING 2.9.1 bonding 2.9.2 bonding 47 47 48 49 2.10 2.11 SUMMARY

CHAPTER 5 ACIDBASE REACTIONS 5.1 ACIDBASE REACTIONS 5.1.1 Introduction 5.1.2 Neutralization reactions TITRATIONS 95 96 96 96 98 5.2 5.2.1 Introduction 5.2.2 Strong acid titrated with a strong base

CHAPTER 8 THE CHEMISTRY OF CARBON 8.1 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 8.1.1 Introduction THE CHEMISTRY OF CARBON PART A 8.1.2 Isomers, functional groups, and parent molecules 8.1.3 Classes of organic molecules 1

CHAPTER 10 BIOLOGICAL POLYMERS 9.3 POLYMER PROPERTIES AND REACTIONS 9.3.1 Polymer structure 9.3.2 Polymer addition reactions 9.3.3 Termination, branching, crosslinking 9.3.4 Polyethylene is all aroun

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2 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 Chemistry happens every day Chemistry is the science of atoms and how they combine to form molecules. In many ways, it is the science that is

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 3 1.1.2 What is chemistry Chemistry is the study of atoms and molecules, which are the smallest bits of matter that can undergo chemical reactions. At the simplest

4 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY silver was of prime importance, one aim of the early alchemists was to turn lead into gold. They experimented with different kinds of chemicals hoping that one day t

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 5 Synthetic chemistry deals with making new kinds of chemicals or chemicals not found naturally. The word synthetic comes from the Greek prefix syn which means with

6 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY round as shown in the diagram. We will learn more about the different kinds of orbitals in Chapter 2 see Section 2.2. Figure 1.4 A helium atom showing the atomic co

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 7 For example, a hydrogen atom has 1 electron and 1 proton, a carbon atom, which has 6 protons, also has 6 electrons and a gold atom has 79 protons and 79 electrons

8 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY 1.2.3 Atomic mass and atomic weight Since atoms are a form of matter, they must have mass. We can estimate the mass of an atom just by counting its protons and neutr

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 9 Mass and weight are different, but on Earth mass always gives rise to weight the force due to gravity acting on mass. So we often talk about the weight of somethi

10 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY For example, a helium atom has a mass of 4 amu, so a mole of helium atoms weighs 4 grams. Two moles of helium atoms weighs 8 grams, three moles weighs 12 grams, and

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 11 A gold atom has a mass of 197 amu a mole of gold atoms weighs 197 grams. How much would two moles of gold weigh four moles Figure 1.10 The number of moles is ba

12 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY If you are familiar with scientific notation, a mole can also be written in a more convenient form 1 mole 6.022 x 1023. A mole is 6022 followed by 20 zeros. Thats

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 13 where an element is in the periodic table, you can often tell how it will behave when mixed with other elements. 1.3.2 The elements As we saw in Section 1.2, th

14 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY 1.3.3 Mixtures and pure substances Matterwhich is everything you can see, taste, and touchis made of different kinds of atoms. Matter can be classified into two cat

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 15 We call such substances elemental, as in elemental gold, or elemental carbon, to indicate that they are composed of only one kind of atom. Figure 1.13 Pure gold

16 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY In general, a compound is two or more atoms bonded together in a fixed ratio. For example, there is always one oxygen atom to two hydrogen atoms in a water molecule

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 17 Then, he organized the cards according to their atomic mass and chemical properties. When he did this, he discovered that elements with similar chemical pro pe r

18 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY 1.3.5 The periodic table today Mendeleevs chart had gaps in the pattern that suggested there should be other elements. So even though he didnt know all of the eleme

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 19 Third, elements with similar chemical properties are lined up in the same column. By chemical properties chemists mean the way the atoms react with each other to

20 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY form sodium chloride, which is ordinary table salt. Potassium and chlorine form potassium chloride, which is sometimes called light salt and is so similar to table

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 21 Figure 1.20 The main group elements blue, the transition elements orange, and the inner transition elements pink. 1.4 SUMMARY Everything around us is made of a

22 FOCUS ON HIGH SCHOOL CHEMISTRY neutrons in atomic mass units, amu. A mole is a specific number of atoms or molecules. A mole is the number of atoms it takes to make the total weight in grams equ

CHAPTER 1 MATTER, MASS, AND MOLES 23 a. Atomic number 17 b. Atomic number 6 c. Atomic number 3 d. Atomic number 7 e. Atomic number 80 5. Which of the following are halogens atomic number 7, atomic n

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