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Illustrations RebeccaW.Keller,PhD,JanetMoneymaker,MarjieBassler Editor MarjieBassler Copyright2013GravitasPublications,Inc. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievals

CONTENTS iii Contents 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS ASTRONOMY Introduction EarlyAstronomers ModernAstronomers ChangingViewsoftheCosmos Summary 1 2 2 4 5 7

iv CONTENTS CHAPTER 7 OTHER SOLAR SYSTEMS 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Introduction Closeststars Constellations BrightestandLargestStars PlanetsNearOtherStars TheCircumstellarHabitableZo

2FOCUSONMIDDLESCHOOLASTRONOMY 1.1Introduction Astronomyisconsideredbymanytobetheoldestscience.Sincelongbefore theinventionofthetelescope,humanbeingshavebeenlookingatthestars. Thewordastronomystrnmcom

CHAPTER1WHATISASTRONOMY3 theEgyptians,Greeks,and Romanscopiedandrevisedthis calendar.Todayourcalendar isderiveddirectlyfromthe Sumeriancalendarandis connectedtothemonthlyand yearlyorbitsoftheMoon and

4FOCUSONMIDDLESCHOOLASTRONOMY TheconstellationnamesderivedfromGreekmythologyhavechangedvery littlesince1000BCBCE.Therearecurrently88constellationsthatare recognizedbytheInternationalAstronomicalUnionI

CHAPTER1WHATISASTRONOMY5 1.4ChangingViewsoftheCosmos Thepracticeofastronomychangeddramaticallyaftertheinventionofthe telescope,ascientifictoolthatuseslensestomagnifydistantobjects.In the1600sGalileog

6FOCUSONMIDDLESCHOOLASTRONOMY Itisnothardtounderstandwhythisviewwasheld.Steppingoutsideatany giventimeofthedayandobservingthemotionoftheSun,itlookslikethe SunrotatesaroundtheEarth.Ageocentricviewofthe

CHAPTER1WHATISASTRONOMY7 AlthoughtodayweknowthatAristarchuswasright,hisproposalwasrejected byhiscolleaguesbecauseitseemedtocontradicteverydayobservation.If theEarthwasnotstablecentralandnotmoving,how

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