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The Essential Bat The Essential Bat Kate Rugroden Amanda Lollar Illustrated by David Chapman Larry Crittenden Photographs by Amanda Lollar unless otherwise noted i

The Essential Bat Copyright 2012 by Bat World Sanctuary. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the authors. A Bat World Sanctuary Publication Mineral Wells, Texas ISBN 9780984547913 First Edition, First Printing Printed in the United States of America ii

The Essential Bat For Sunshine, who started it all. iii

The Essential Bat We go out of our course to make ourselves uncom fortable the cup of life is not bitter enough to our palate, and we distill superfluous poison to put into it, or conjure up hideous things to frighten ourselves at, which would never exist if we did not make them. Charles Mackay, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, 1841 It is unfortunate the average person has a deep prejudice against the bat. Without looking or thinking for himself, he accepts a lot of

The Essential Bat Acknowledgements I would like to thank my husband, Martin, for his unending patience through the hours of research and writing for this project, and for his steadfast belief that I could produce a book that would be worth reading. I would also like to thank Amanda Lollar and Dottie Hyatt of Bat World Sanctuary for welcoming me so warmly into the wonderful world they share with bats, and for giving so freely of their time and knowledge. Finally, I must thank the bats that have

The Essential Bat Table of Contents Foreword................................................................ 1 Introduction.............................................................. 2 Why Bat World 2 The Natural Bat......................................................... Wondrous Variety.................................................... Anatomy of the Wing................................................ Breeding and Maturation............................................ Longevity........

The Essential Bat Table of Contents The Future Bat.......................................................... White Nose Syndrome............................................. Wind Farming....................................................... The Role of Rehabilitators......................................... 68 68 69 71 Simple Solutions for Protecting Bats................................. 73 What to Do if You Find a Bat........................................ 77 Epilogue......................

The Essential Bat Foreword Dottie Hyatt , Vice President, Bat World Sanctuary Roughly one out of every four mammals on earth is a bat. Consider this if your day includes soap, shampoo, cosmetics, a toothbrush and toothpaste, coffee, margarine, paper or ink, cushions, wood furniture, fuel or lubricating fluids, rope or twine, timber, boats, ornamental trees, life saving medicines, air fresheners, candles, rubber, chewing gum, spices, vegetables, fruits, chocolate or even margaritas or beer, you

The Essential Bat because a bats wings are simply elongated fingers that are covered with a delicate skin membrane to form a flight surface. Bats are the only flying mammal. There are over 1,100 different species of bats, found everywhere except the most extreme polar and desert regions where mammalian life forms cannot be supported, but only 46 of those species reside in the United States and of those 46 species, 56 are either endangered or are official candidates for the list. The majority of

The Essential Bat Introduction W HY B AT W ORLD One of the questions we are asked most often at public presentations is why bats There are so many myths and misconceptions about bats that many people are at the very least a little bit afraid of them. However, once most people begin to learn about bats, they find their fears dispelled and their sense of wonder engaged. Why bats suddenly becomes I had no idea Bat World Sanctuary BWS is a unique facility. It is the only rehabilitation and teachin

The Essential Bat back into their natural habitat and providing lifelong sanctuary for bats that cannot be released but for whom a quality life can still be obtained. Bat Worlds mission also includes promoting the humane treatment of both wild and captive bats particularly those in zoos, and research and the protection of wild bat populations. The motivation to establish Bat World Sanctuary was from a single, unexpected encounter with a tiny, injured, Brazilian freetailed bat which Amanda Lolla

The Essential Bat The Natural Bat Wondrous Variety Bats are among the most beautiful and agile creatures to grace our night skies, yet they remain one of the most mythical and secretive animals on Earth. As previously stated, bats are the only flying mammals in the world, and there are over 1100 species worldwide. Bats have been represented symbolically in ancient cultures, ranging from Egyptian and Mayan ruins to Chinese art. Although revered in some cultures, they are feared in others, and ma

The Essential Bat Three species of bats in the United States feed on nectar. These three species are the longnosed bat Leptonycteris nivalis, the lesser longnosed bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, and the Mexican longtongued bat Choeronycteris mexicana. All three of these species are found in the Southwest and are important pollinators of cacti and agave. Most bats are nocturnal feeders, roosting during the day in a variety of places. Some are crevice bats that roost in places such as caves, aband

The Essential Bat individuals, disruption or disturbance of any kind to these hibernacula may result in the loss of large numbers of bats which can impact agricultural interests in many states or provinces. New species of bats continue to emerge from their hiding places, and their unusual facial features are providing much fertile ground for study. One such newfound species is the Griffins leafnosed bat, recently identified in Vietnam. Scientists are still speculating about the purpose of the b

The Essential Bat The tail membrane uropatagium of foliage roosting bats is fully furred. 8

The Essential Bat Anatomy of the Wing The upper arm bone in a bat is the humerus. The muscles that move these bones are the same as those found in humans, although they have been modified for their role in flight. The ulna, however, is very much reduced in size from that seen in other mammals and is fused to the elongated radius. This fusion keeps the elbow joint locked in position when the wing is extended during the down stroke the power generating part of the wing cycle. The radius does not

The Essential Bat above the bats body and slightly backwards. This series of movements is called a wingbeat cycle. Bats fly by using a series of wingbeat cycles. The final and smallest appendage projecting from the wrist is the thumb. The thumb is the first digit and ends in a tiny, sharp claw. Bats use their thumbs for climbing, roosting, and manipulating insects when feeding, so injuries to the thumb may significantly decrease a bats chances of survival in the wild. Skeletal components of th

The Essential Bat Breeding, Gestation and Maturation Bats are mammals. They have fur, marrowfilled bones, give birth to live young, and produce milk for their offspring called pups. The females of most bat species give birth to only one pup per year of their adult life, making them the slowestreproducing mammals of their size. For example, a Brazilian freetailed bat weighing 12 grams will have one pup per year starting at one to three years of age, while a mouse of the same size reaches reprodu

The Essential Bat Some crevicedwelling species commonly bear twins, such as the big brown bat E. fuscus and the evening bat N. humeralis. Rarely, triplets are known to occur. In these species, the mother has two pectoral breasts so it is unlikely that all three pups would survive. Many North American bats hibernate and have reproductive patterns characterized by delayed fertilization and overwinter storage of sperm in the female reproductive tract. In North American species, gestation generally

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